Understanding the Dual Discrepancy/ Consistency Model for SLD Identification via Excerpts from Case Studies

4 hours running time

The Dual Discrepancy/Consistency (DD/C) method is a Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) method for SLD identification that is in widespread use. The DD/C method and its origin will be presented along with a description of the improvements it has undergone over the past 18 years, considering advances in theory and research in assessment and learning disability fields of study. DD/C criteria will also be presented and explained.


Vincent C. Alfonso, Ph.D., is Professor in and former Dean of the School of Education at Gonzaga University in Spokane, Washington. He is past president of Division 16 (School Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), and Fellow of Divisions 16, 5, and 43 of the APA. He is also Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science.


Dawn Flanagan, PhD, is a Professor of Psychology at St. John’s University and Affiliate Clinical Professor at Yale Child Study Center. She is a widely published author and co-developer of the Cross-Battery Assessment approach and corresponding software system (X-BASS). Her most recent books are on topics related to cognitive assessment, SLD identification, and educational interventions.




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